Flame retardant chemicals are found in a wide variety of products:

  • Upholstered furniture
  • Electronics
  • Baby products
  • Building insulation
  • Carpet padding
  • Vehicles

In your home, flame retardants are emitted from upholstered furniture in the form of dust, and they can get on your hands when you use plastic electronic items such as your remote control. Flame retardants chemicals are harmful to your health, and they have not proven very effective at preventing fires. Reduce your exposure to flame retardant chemicals with these solutions:

Everyday Actions

  • Dust, vacuum, and mop your home often.
  • Wash your hands often, especially before eating.
  • Don’t eat while using electronics such as a TV remote or computer key board.
  • Cover up holes or reupholster old furniture, pillows or pads if foam cushions are exposed.

Improvements and Replacements

Understand why flame retardant chemicals are used.

Since the 1970s, flame retardant chemicals have been incorporated into furniture, carpet padding, insulation, electronics, and other products. At that time, in-home smoking was more prevalent, and electronics would often overheat. Thus, these chemicals were perceived as necessary. Flame retardant chemicals are added to products as an outdated method to meet government fire safety rules. Even though these chemicals do little, if anything, to slow or prevent fires. 

Studies show flame retardants are accumulating in humans and the environment. These chemicals may disrupt brain development and thyroid function; affect learning, memory and attention; reduce IQ and sperm quality; and mimic estrogen.

Luckily, policy changes are leading to a reduction in the use of flame retardants.

Fire safety regulations for upholstered home furniture have changed to encourage other manufacturing methods which do not use these chemicals. Because of this change, and in response to consumer health concerns, many manufacturers have promised to stop adding flame retardant chemicals to polyurethane foam used in their products. There is also legislation barring and limiting manufacturers from using flame retardants in certain consumer products. In fact, flame retardant chemicals in furniture and certain children's products have been banned in San Francisco since 2019 and in California since 2020. Several other states are following suit as well.

What should I be looking for when I shop?

Although any new upholstered furniture sold in California is required to be free of flame retardant chemicals, it’s helpful to know what to look for when buying second-hand furniture, or when buying furniture in another state. Check for the label below, usually under the couch cushion or under the seat of the chair, to verify that the item does not contain flame retardant chemicals.

It is more difficult to tell whether children's products contain flame retardant chemicals, as no labeling about these chemicals is required. Like furniture, new children’s products sold in California must be flame-retardant-free, but if you are buying second-hand or in another state, it’s a good idea to check with the manufacturer to see when they stopped using these chemicals in their products.


Related Content

San Francisco's Flame Retardant Chemical Ordinance
Tips for Healthy Homes

Additional Resources

Natural Resources Defense Council's explaining flame retardants
Chicago Tribune's "Playing with Fire" series on how and why flame retardants are used
Green Science Policy Institute's background on flame retardants
Environmental Health Perspectives' summary of widespread exposure to flame retardants